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Port and Wharf

In ports, parts such as grabs, hoppers, and chutes in bulk cargo handling systems such as iron ore and coal are subject to severe abrasion. The wear-resistant composite steel plates are used in the wear-prone parts to extend the service life of these wearing parts. It is very important to reduce the downtime of loading and unloading machinery.

With the growth of port throughput, the utilization rate of port machinery equipment is getting higher and higher. Especially in recent years, the types of loading and unloading goods have expanded. The amount of iron ore and coke operations has increased year by year, making the problem of equipment wear increasingly serious.

Bulk material loading and unloading, transfer and conveying system

Wear-resistant bucket
Wear-resistant bucket
Wear-resistant grab
Wear-resistant pipe

Wear-resistant bucket

port and wharf

Port handling machinery

Port handling machinery can be divided into three basic types: hoisting machinery, conveying machinery and loading and unloading handling machinery.
In the port, it is engaged in cargo loading and unloading of ships and vehicles, cargo stacking, destacking and transshipment in warehouse yards, and lifting and transporting machinery for cargo handling in cabins, carriages, and warehouses. Port loading and unloading machinery generally needs to have high working speed and productivity, and can meet the requirements of frequent continuous operations.

Port handling machinery can be divided into three basic types: hoisting machinery, conveying machinery and loading and unloading handling machinery. There are more than 100 types of loading and unloading machinery used in ports, of which about 30 are widely used.

Hoisting Machinery" A machine that can lift goods vertically and has a horizontal movement function. Its work feature is intermittent repetitive work, and there is a dead time in each work cycle. Lifting machinery is mainly a variety of lifting equipment. Port cranes, portal grab ship unloaders, bridge grab ship unloaders, gantry cranes and floating cranes (see crane ships) are mostly used in ports. . The container terminal mainly uses quayside container cranes.

Door Crane A type of revolving jib crane, named after the portal base (door base), also known as gantry crane and gantry crane. It has four mechanisms that can coordinate the work of lifting, rotating, luffing, and walking (Figure 1). The portal crane travels along the ground track. Railway vehicles and cars can pass under the door. This crane has a long boom, a large lifting height, and a fast working speed of each mechanism, so it has a large working range and high productivity, and it can be equipped with different picking devices. For example, the hook can load and unload heavy items such as cargo and steel, the grab can load and unload bulk cargo, and the special spreader can load and unload containers (but the efficiency is not as good as the special equipment for containers), so it has strong versatility. China produces portal cranes of 5 tons, 10 tons, 16 tons, 60 tons and other different lifting weight classes.

Door grab ship unloader A special machine derived from a gantry crane, also known as a door grab, is mostly used for bulk cargo unloading in seaports. The structure is similar to the portal crane, but the portal is equipped with a funnel and belt conveyor system for bulk cargo, and the spreader is a grab. After grabbing the bulk cargo from the cabin, the grab will unload the bulk cargo into the funnel on the door seat after lifting and luffing, and then transport it to the yard by the belt conveyor system. The funnel on the portal can be moved to minimize the luffing stroke, so the productivity is higher than the general general portal crane, and the structural strength of the boom system is also higher. The door-base grab ship unloader manufactured in China has a productivity of about 800 tons per hour and is suitable for bulk cargo unloading operations in small and medium ports.

Bridge grab ship unloader Special ship unloading machinery for bulk cargo with higher productivity (Figure 2). The difference between it and the portal grab ship unloader is that its horizontally moving grab is realized by the grab trolley traveling on the crane bridge track, not by the pitch of the boom, so it has a higher horizontal moving speed. And productivity. The productivity of this ship unloader can be as high as about 2500 tons per hour.

Shore container crane is a special crane for container loading and unloading ships. It is arranged at the front of the container terminal and looks similar to the bridge grab ship unloader. There are many types of quayside container cranes. China uses two front and rear door frames and tie rods to form a door frame. The door frame runs along the front track of the dock, and the bridge frame is supported on the door frame (Figure 3). In order to avoid collisions when the ship is leaning from the dock, some of the outriggers of the bridge can be pitched and some can be telescopic. The walking trolley travels back and forth along the track of the bridge frame to lift the container. The common lifting speed is 70~120 meters per minute when empty, 35~50 meters per minute when heavy load, and the traveling speed of trolley is about 120~150 meters per minute, and it is equipped with special container spreader and anti-rolling device. , The lifting weight is generally below 40 tons, and the container can be lifted 20 to 30 TEU per hour.
Gantry crane A bridge crane with the horizontal main beam supported on two rigid legs. The crane trolley walks on the track of the main beam. Gantry cranes have two types: rail type and tire type. The rail type walks along the ground track and the tire type moves flexibly. Mainly used for loading and unloading and stacking containers in the yard. The rubber-tyred gantry crane produced in China has a lifting capacity of 40 tons, 6 rows of containers can be placed in the wheel span, and 4 layers of containers can be stacked in the height of the span.

Floating crane A boom crane mounted on a flat-bottomed ship or a special ship, also known as a floating crane or a crane ship (see color picture). Because of its greater lifting weight and mobility, and not being affected by changes in water level, it is widely used in loading and unloading operations in seaports and river ports. In river ports with large water level differences, floating cranes are often associated with cable cars for loading and unloading operations. The cable car is a wedge-shaped car with a cargo platform, which is towed by a hoist and runs on the track of a sloped wharf. It is mostly used for loading and unloading cargo and heavy cargo. The load capacity of the cable car is generally 10 tons, and the maximum is 150 tons. "Conveying machinery" is a machine that can continuously transport goods, also known as continuous transport machinery. The goods can be transported on any plane, namely horizontal plane, inclined plane, and vertical plane. Conveyors can be divided into two types with traction components and those without traction components. The former uses belts, chains, ropes, etc. to drive load-bearing components to transport goods, mainly belt conveyors and chain conveyors; the latter uses gravity, inertia, friction, and airflow to transport goods, mainly pneumatic conveyors.

Belt Conveyor A machine that conveys goods with a continuously moving endless conveyor belt. The conveyor belt bypasses the transmission, redirection, tensioning and other rollers, and is supported on many idlers. When working, the drive roller is driven to move the conveyor belt through the friction between the drive roller and the conveyor belt to transport the goods on the belt to the unloading location. The most widely used belt conveyor is a belt conveyor, which uses a belt as a conveyor belt. Different tape widths and number of cushion layers form different specifications. China has produced a series of stereotyped products. Tapes produced in some countries have a width of up to 3000 mm. For long-distance transportation, in order to improve the tensile strength of the conveyor belt, a steel cord-core tape is used, and the transportation distance can exceed 10 kilometers.

Port belt conveyors are used for bulk bulk cargo loading, transshipment and stacking operations and form various special machinery, such as coal ship loader and ore ship loader. In some countries, the productivity of the ore ship loader has reached 20,000 tons per hour, and the belt speed has reached 6 meters per second. The use of conveyors for bulk cargo unloading operations can also obtain higher productivity. At some coal terminals along the Mississippi River in the United States, chain-bucket ship unloaders are used to unload coal from coal barges, and the productivity can reach 3,600 tons per hour. The chain bucket ship unloader can also be used for bulk grain unloading operations. It is composed of a walkable door seat, a chain bucket elevator and a belt conveyor. Clamping belt conveyor is a belt conveyor that uses two layers of tape to clamp cargo for conveying, also known as belt conveyor, and is also used for bulk cargo unloading operations.

China River Port uses a belt conveyor called a "belt car" to transport bulk or piece cargo on a sloped wharf. It is to install the frame of the entire conveyor on a narrow-gauge trolley with a length of about 3 meters. The small workshop adopts articulation. The track is laid from the slope of the wharf to the wharf surface through an arc. The hoist is arranged on the wharf surface. The steel wire rope pulls the entire conveyor and adjusts its parking position with changes in the water level. The belt car has a belt width of 650 mm and 800 mm, a length of 100 to 200 meters, and a productivity of 400 to 500 tons per hour for conveying loose coal.

Stacker-reclaimer is used in bulk cargo (such as coal) storage yard to pile up the bulk cargo transported by conveying machinery, or to supply materials to transport machinery. Stackers, reclaimers, or stackers are often used. Reclaimer. Which type of machinery to choose depends mainly on the requirements of the type of cargo and the handling process. The commonly used stacker and reclaimer is a bucket wheel stacker and reclaimer. It consists of bucket wheels and belt conveyors, frame, walking mechanism and so on mounted on the boom. When reclaiming, the bucket wheel rotates to dig out bulk cargo from the cargo pile and dump it on the conveyor belt for output. When stacking materials, the bulk cargo sent by the conveying machinery is stacked on the belt conveyor. The bucket wheel stacker and reclaimer produced in China has a maximum productivity of 2,000 tons of stacking and 1,200 tons of reclaiming per hour.

Pneumatic conveyor A machine that uses the airflow formed by a fan in a closed pipeline to transport bulk cargo, also known as a pneumatic conveyor. The fan sucks air from the piping system, and the cargo is sucked into the material pipe from the suction nozzle along with the airflow. The high-speed airflow makes the bulk cargo transported in suspension in the material pipe; then the bulk cargo is separated from the airflow by the separator and unloaded The feeder is unloaded and the conveying process is complete. This kind of conveyor is mostly used for bulk grain unloading operations in ports, so it is also called grain suction machine. It has the advantages of simple equipment and good cleaning effect; the disadvantage is that it consumes a lot of energy, cannot transport goods with large particle size and cohesiveness, and has high noise during operation. The bulk grain unloading rate of the pneumatic conveyor has reached 1,000 tons per hour.

Loading, unloading and handling machinery is used for loading and unloading, cargo stacking and short-distance horizontal transportation of goods at the port. There are forklifts, straddle carriers, dumpers, screw unloaders, tractors and trailers.

Fork loading and unloading truck A loading and unloading machine equipped with a lifting mast and forks in front of the tire-type chassis, referred to as forklift or forklift. It is widely used in docks, warehouses, cabins and cars. When working, insert the fork into the pallet, and then lift the fork to lift the goods for stacking operations. The forklift has compact structure and good maneuverability, and it can walk in the narrow passage in the warehouse or cabin. If equipped with different retrieval devices such as string rods, rotating cargo clamps, cargo buckets, holding clamps, etc., it can load and unload a variety of goods. The large forklift truck is equipped with a special container spreader to become a dedicated forklift truck for containers. Fork loading and unloading trucks can be divided into internal combustion fork loading and unloading trucks and battery fork loading and unloading trucks according to the power unit; according to the structure, there are counterbalanced, forward-moving, inserted leg, side fork, and rotary fork types.

Straddle carrier A handling machine consisting of a portal frame, a lifting frame with a fork and a tire-type walking mechanism (Figure 4), also known as a straddle carrier. Generally driven by an internal combustion engine. The straddle carrier is suitable for the handling and stacking operations of long and large cargo such as steel, wood, and long and large boxes. When working, the portal frame straddles the cargo, and the cargo is picked up by the fork for handling and stacking. With the development of container transportation, ports in some countries use straddle carriers to move containers between the front of the terminal and the warehouse and stack them in the warehouse. This kind of container special straddle carrier is equipped with a container spreader. When the portal frame straddles the container, the spreader falls on the container, and the container is locked with a hydraulic rotary lock, and then the container is lifted. The lifting height of the spreader should meet the requirements of stacking 2 to 3 layers of containers.

Car dumper The special car dumper used to tip the railway gondola to unload the bulk cargo. It has high productivity and is suitable for large professional bulk cargo terminals. According to the structure, the car tipper is divided into two types: a rotor tipper and a side tipper. Rotor dumpers are used in many applications. When unloading, the gondola carrying bulk cargo enters the rotor platform of the dumper, is pressed by the trolley mechanism, and then rotates 160°~180° together with the rotor, and the bulk cargo is unloaded under the rotor. In the hopper, it is transported out with a feeder and a belt conveyor. The modern car dumper can accommodate two gondola cars at a time, and the two gondola cars are connected by rotating couplers to realize the unloading operation without disintegrating the train train, which greatly improves the unloading efficiency. The original rotor dumper takes about 3 minutes to unload a truck of bulk cargo, while the modern dumper takes less than 1 minute to unload a truck.

Screw unloader A special machine made in China in the 1970s for unloading loose coal carried by railway gondola cars. It is composed of screw mechanism, swing mechanism, lifting mechanism, walking mechanism, etc. When unloading the car, open the side door of the gondola, and the screw mechanism rotates on the bulk cargo in the car from the top of the gondola horizontally to unload the loose coal and then be picked up by the belt conveyor under the car. The one-way screw unloader unloads the truck from one side, and the two-way screw unloader unloads the truck from both sides. The spiral unloader track is laid on both sides of the railway unloading line. It moves along the track while unloading the truck, with a productivity of 300 to 400 tons per hour.

In recent years, in order to solve the problem of connection between oil pipelines and oil tankers, oil terminals have often adopted oil transfer arms (see color pictures). This is a special machine for loading and unloading bulk liquid cargo.

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